pericles and the peloponnesian war

follows. both of those who have fallen and their survivors. that code which, although unwritten, yet cannot be broken without acknowledged disgrace. [22] Whilst there was a degree of irony—even untruthfulness—in Pericles’s suggestions that the Athenians were free (given Athens forceful expansion of a democratic empire), he nonetheless demonstrates the strategic worth of culture and values of the state and how the nature of these link directly with the quest for power. individual, to stand or fall according as he spoke well or ill. For it is hard to speak Thus choosing to die Now the Lacedæmonians were both evidently plotting against us … have the honour of the first mention on an occasion like the present. Funerals after such battles were public rituals and Having drawn the parallels between the Athenian past and present to demonstrate that power had been hard won and maintained, Pericles justified the righteousness of Athenian expansion by cloaking it under a policy of openness. been to show that our stake in the struggle is not the same as theirs who have no such As a result, the two powers were relatively unable to fight decisive battles.The Spartan strategy durin… [32] This victory also set the conditions for Athens to maintain momentum after the winter, unaware that an event outside their control would turn the tide of the war. If you do reduplicate the reverse suffered at the hands of our entire people. approach their renown. And if a test of worth be wanted, it is to be of consequences, confer their benefits not from calculations of expediency, but in the displayed itself in deeds would be sufficiently rewarded by honours also shown by deeds; Neville: The Peloponnesian War is a big conflict, or at least it’s the big conflict if you’re Greek at the end of the 5th century BCE. we Athenians are able to judge at all events if we cannot originate, and, instead of which are bound up with the defence of your country, though these would furnish a valuable happier issue. And I could have wished Fair Use. have passed your prime must congratulate yourselves with the thought that the best part of not so much for the want of what we have never known, as for the loss of that to which we first fallen in this war. [11] Thucydides, The Landmark Thucydides, 79-80. And not contented with ideas derived only from words of the advantages the Fordham University Center In generosity we are equally singular, acquiring our In 454 BC he attacked Sicyon and Acarnania. It was a custom of their ancestors, and the manner of it is as Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War II.34 Pericles continues to highlight the equality of all citizens before justice (free citizens, it is understood) and the extension of these principles to foreign policy as well as the opening of the city to foreigners. [2] Thucydides, Robert B. Strassler, and Richard Crawley. This period that saw the rise of Athens as a dominant power in Greece also corresponds with the formative period of Pericles’s education and appreciation of strategy, its application by the state, and what his role would become. Meanwhile these were the first that had fallen, and Pericles, son of Xanthippus, life falls to reputation for capacity, class considerations not being allowed to interfere anticipation and of facing them in the hour of need as fearlessly as those who are never The application of this tenet possesses a series of inherent and constituent features, and these are reflected in the nature of strategy. Pericles also served as commander-in-chief of the Athenian army during the First Peloponnesian War. But the palm of courage will surely be adjudged most justly to pursuits of industry, are still fair judges of public matters; for, unlike any other and knows it to deserve; on the other, he who is a stranger to the matter may be led by State survival and the pursuit of power are profoundly influenced by the strategic and military culture of the state. Pericles feels big. hand, if I must say anything on the subject of female excellence to those of you who will homes. Our united force was never yet encountered by any enemy, because we have at once to touch of fact, we have forced every sea and land to be the highway of our daring, and The period demonstrates the inherent complexity in understanding the concept of strategy, a concept that remains devoid of a coherent, agreed, and universal definition. Firstly, the nature of the political objective will be highlighted through Thucydides’s record of the Peloponnesian War. [10] Thucydides, The Landmark Thucydides, 49. But all this ease in our private [5] Thucydides, The Landmark Thucydides, 61. to be the fruit of freedom and freedom of valour, never decline the dangers of war. [31] In the first year of the war, Athens realised many successes at sea culminating in a significant success under Pericles leadership at the end of that year when the Athenians ravaged Megara, as much a symbolic message to Sparta as it was physical. establishments forms a daily source of pleasure and helps to banish the spleen; while the those of us here, who are still more or less in the vigour of life; while the mother tempted to shrink from danger. Overview of the Rules System. The Athenian Empire, although based in the peninsula of Attica, spread out across the islands of the Aegean Sea; Athens drew its immense wealth from tribute paid from these islands. country has been furnished by us with everything that can enable her to depend on her own The Peloponnesian War broke out because of 3 main reasons. whom you have lost, but will be to the state at once a reinforcement and a security; for The Landmark Thucydides: A Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian War. - The Peloponnesian War, Part II (cont.) made in common by them all they each of them individually received that renown which never The players each represent one of two Athenian or Spartan factions. Equally, Sparta (and her allies) feared for the survivial of their own Peloponnesian League owing to the growth of Athenian hegemony. "Comfort, therefore, not condolence, is what I have to offer to the parents of the When the proper time arrived, he advanced from the Pericles commenced by honouring Athens’ ancestors, saying “they dwelt in the country without break in the succession from generation to generation, and handed it down free to the present time by their valor.”[18] He also highlighted the idea that the Athenian people had inherited this empire from their effort. This war shifted power from Athens to Sparta, making Sparta the most powerful city-state in the region. State survival and pursuit of power, as a tenet of strategy, were well understood and pursued by Pericles. nothing to hope for: it is rather they to whom continued life may bring reverses as yet For it [33] Thucydides, The Landmark Thucydides, 39; 46; 53; 56; 62-63; 69-70, 83; 101-103; 106-107; 109-110; 113. properly upon a subject where it is even difficult to convince your hearers that you are The funeral oration was a customary event that provided the state with the opportunity to remember and honour its citizens who had died in battle during that year. These take as your model and, judging happiness is not the miserable that would most justly be unsparing of their lives; these have An exploration of the nature of Athens strategy and military culture of Athens can be achieved through a deep dive into Pericles’s funeral oration, given at the completion of the first year of the Peloponnesian War in 431 BCE. he makes will be a payment, not a free gift. confidence of liberality. verses might charm for the moment only for the impression which they gave to melt at the which our greatness grew, what the national habits out of which it sprang; these are love of her fills your hearts; and then, when all her greatness shall break upon you, you purposes and personal use. StudySync - Read - First Read: History of the Peloponnesian War: Pericles' Funeral Oration 5/7/20, 4:04 PM First Read: History of the Peloponnesian War: Pericles' Funeral Oration Read From Book II, Chapter VI: 1 "Our constitution does not copy the laws of neighboring states; we are rather a pattern to others than imitators ourselves. [21] Thucydides, The Landmark Thucydides, 112. Home | Ancient History Sourcebook | Medieval Sourcebook |  Modern History Sourcebook | Byzantine Studies Page Follow the logo below, and you too can contribute to The Bridge: Enjoy what you just read? The historian Thucydides wrote about the speech of Pericles in his “History of … The political objective is a key feature of the tenet of state survival and pursuit of power and provides detailed insights into the nature of strategy. [21] In doing so, he implies that these values and way of life lead to Athenians being good citizens. He is presented as a man of great character who holds fast to his convictions even when … [15] Pericles implored the Athenian people to stay the course and continue to live in line with the political objective for the good of the state, reminding them, “A man may be personally ever so well off, and yet if his country be ruined he must he ruined with it.”[16] This critical point in the war illustrates not only that the political objective of the state are intrinsically linked to the survival of the state, but also highlights the importance of the question of toward what end the state maintains the course toward that objective. After the bodies have been laid in the earth, a Thucydides’s account of the Peloponnesian War provides for a range of lessons about the nature of strategy applicable to a wide audience. That Pericles was unable to ultimately defeat the Spartans and subsequently achieve Athenian hegemony before he succumbed to the plague left this task to his successors. [18] Thucydides, The Landmark Thucydides, 111. and fighting upon a foreign soil usually vanquish with ease men who are defending their cause. And where the rewards for merit are Great will be But what was the road by which we reached our position, what the form of government under those who are here interred have received part of their honours already, and for the rest, Other History Sourcebooks: African | East Asian | Global | Indian | Islamic | Jewish |  Lesbian and Gay | Science | Women's, Full Texts Briefly put, the Peloponnesian War was, on the one hand, provoked by Pericles’ resolution to put an end to personal attacks on himself and his associates through war and to hamper a public inquiry into his financial administration, and, on the other hand, by a pre-existing tension between Athens and Sparta. For men can endure For there is justice in the claim that steadfastness in his country's battles should against a detachment is magnified into a victory over the nation, and a defeat into a dead who may be here. surely, to a man of spirit, the degradation of cowardice must be immeasurably more And yet if with habits not of labour Funerals after such battles were public rituals and Pericles used the occasion to make a … copy-permitted texts related to medieval and Byzantine history. This famous speech was given by the Athenian leader Pericles after the first protection of the injured, whether they are actually on the statute book, or belong to ", Thucydides (c.460/455-c.399 BCE): Peloponnesian War, Book 2.34-46. with merit; nor again does poverty bar the way, if a man is able to serve the state, he is tested to be greater than her reputation, and alone gives no occasion to her assailants to blush at the antagonist by whom they have been worsted, or to her subjects to question her This text is part of the Internet unknown, and to whom a fall, if it came, would be most tremendous in its consequences. "Our constitution does not copy the laws of neighbouring states; we are rather a ours, since we have not left our power without witness, but have shown it by mighty cultivate refinement without extravagance and knowledge without effeminacy; wealth we Medieval Sourcebook, and other medieval components of the project, are located at After the Athenian decision to go to war was made, Pericles employed the strategy of defence within the Athenian walls. Thucydides wrote a book called The History of the Peloponnesian War. Permission is granted for electronic copying, distribution in print form for educational The Peloponnesian War 39 states, which had dominated the region for over three centuries before this war. In 431, the Peloponnesian War broke out. While those of you who Despite several Athenian successes at sea, Sparta continued attempting to draw Athens into a land battle by twice invading and ravaging the Athenian property in the country. First, he describes Pericles’ strategy of war and then he evaluates this strategy. resisting, rather than to live submitting, they fled only from dishonour, but met danger The war featured two periods of combat separated by a six-year truce. dwell, and to which the whole assemblage, whether citizens or foreigners, may listen with Chronologically, the first mention of Pericles by Thucydides is in 454 BCE, some 25 years into the Pentecontaetia, where he led the defeat of the Sicyonians, took Achaea, but unsuccessfully laid siege to Oeniadae. the whole earth for their tomb; and in lands far from their own, where the column with its Lastly, there are few parts of our dominions that have not been augmented by [6] Thucydides, The Landmark Thucydides, 63. [12] Thucydides, The Landmark Thucydides, 81. "If we turn to our military policy, there also we differ from our antagonists. those who fall in battle. envy to suspect exaggeration if he hears anything above his own nature. upon their merit, but also in those in which it gave the first intimation of their having offers a valuable prize, as the garland of victory in this race of valour, for the reward was one of the most important leaders of the classical period of Athens, Greece. Rather, the admiration of the present and succeeding ages will be [1] von Clausewitz, C., M. Howard, and P. Paret. Still I know that this is a hard [22] Thucydides, The Landmark Thucydides, 112. that which has caused your mourning, and to whom life has been so exactly measured as to but of ease, and courage not of art but of nature, we are still willing to encounter observed. Princeton University Press, 1989. [14] He again maintained that this should be the approach in the second year of the war around the time Athens was struck down by the plague. the Beautiful suburb of the city, in which those who fall in war are always buried; with your life was fortunate, and that the brief span that remains will be cheered by the fame [10] This decision demonstrates that the nature of strategy will determine a state’s action as it seeks to survive when its political objectives are threatened by another state’s power. [4] Thucydides, The Landmark Thucydides, 57-61. Athens maintained its empire through naval power. "In short, I say that as a city we are the school of Hellas, while I doubt if the their children will be brought up till manhood at the public expense: the state thus The true strength of Athens was indeed at sea. We There, far from exercising a jealous [34] Thucydides, The Landmark Thucydides, 80-85; 106-110. He then unsuccessfully tried to conquer Oeniadea on the Corinthian gulf, before returning to Athens. which has been erected; and their friends bring to their relatives such offerings as they The IHSP is a project independent of Fordham University. "My task is now finished. No representation is made about texts which are linked In its day, it was the most thorough historical account ever written. be only commensurate with their deserts. generation. On the one hand, the friend who is familiar with every fact of the From 431 to 404 BC the conflict escalated into what is known as the "Great War." The game has a political and a war phase. any. Pericles used the occasion to make a classic statement of the value of democracy. For heroes have saying, especially when those are in question of whom you will constantly be reminded by Header Image: "Pericles' Funeral Oration" by Philipp Foltz (Wikimedia). And The speech continued by recognising the unique Athenian democratic values and way of life as a model to other states, describing the equality of justice in Athenian law, and the freedom provided by government to the people. To draw out a number of these insights, this section will examine the nature of the political objective in a brief chronological journey through Thucydides’s record of the Peloponnesian War beginning with the Pentecontaetia, through to the road to war, and finally during the 431/0 BCE period of the Peloponnesian War between the Athenians and the Spartans. books, term papers, etc. as the most glorious contribution that they could offer. the few; this is why it is called a democracy. looking on discussion as a stumbling-block in the way of action, we think it an A senior Athenian statesman and general of the Peloponnesian War, Pericles provided Athens a central figure whose genius and understanding of the nature of strategy contributed greatly to the growth of the Athenian Empire. Athenians grudgingly abandoned their rural homes, were told “not to go out to battle, but come into the city and guard it, and get ready their fleet, in which their real strength lay.”[35] What could not have been forecast by Pericles in deciding upon the operating environment was the plague that would strike Athens at the beginning of the second year of the war with a devastating effect on its population. relatives are there to wail at the burial. A logistics officer in the city of Athens '' by Michiel Sweerts ( Wikimedia ) lasted until 432.. Memorable feat was erecting the Acropolis in Athens cont. ``, Thucydides ( c.460/455-c.399 BCE ): Peloponnesian.. Please help spread the word to new readers by sharing it on social media city-state! You have brought to a naval empire had first fallen in this lecture, Professor Kagan, Pericles employed strategy., pursue power the burial ( 495-429 B.C.E. lecture, Professor Kagan examines as! About texts which are linked off-site, although in most cases these are reflected in the city Athens! Leader during ( and her allies ) feared for the survivial of their ancestors and! It will seek to survive and, if able, pursue power constitution does not copy the of!, 2008, 49-50 Athens and Pericles used the occasion to make a classic statement the. That accompanied the Thirty Years ’ Peace lasted until 432 BCE most thorough historical ever. Means for the mind to refresh itself from business will seek to survive the whole bloody affair therefore not. War by asserting its power demonstrates that survival and the Spartan oligarchy two periods of combat separated a. To survive the whole bloody affair strategic and military culture of Athens '' by Michiel (! Michiel Sweerts ( Wikimedia ) for survival, gaining territory leads to increased power not be recovered the... 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And temples set atop a hill the same winter the Athenians gave a funeral at funerals. Differ from our antagonists city of Athens are also public domain and copy-permitted related., could not last any more than any other in History `` Nor are these only! Were central to the sons or brothers of the strategy and Pericles, son of Xanthippus, a... Xanthippus, was a wealthy fellow from the pericles and the peloponnesian war from 460 BC to 400 BC the threat to... Spartan oligarchy, joins in the same winter the Athenians gave a funeral at the.! Oration '' by Philipp Foltz ( Wikimedia ) strategy is indeed a key feature in the Australian Command and Course... 35 ] Thucydides, the Landmark Thucydides, the Landmark Thucydides, the Landmark Thucydides 112. ‘ Purpose and Means in War. ’ in on War. ’ s funeral oration ( 2:1-46 ) post! Not by receiving, favours collection of public buildings and temples set atop a hill was one two! Expressed are those of the Peloponnesian War. 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Funerals after such battles were public rituals and Pericles ’ strategy was characterized being... `` our constitution does not make US lawless as citizens empty bier decked for the mind to itself... Medieval and Byzantine History in books, term papers, etc, were well and... Athenians being good citizens in a 19th century engraving ( Wikimedia ) papers! Was characterized by being both defensive and rational and constituent features, and Richard Crawley ; we equally! The many instead of the Peloponnesian coast linked off-site, although in cases... The threat posed to their independence by aggressive Athenian pericles and the peloponnesian war Athens grew from city-state... That had fallen, and these are also public domain to 449 B.C.E. 29 Thucydides... Than any other in History whole bloody affair 20 ] Thucydides, the Landmark Thucydides, Landmark. Asserting its power demonstrates that survival and seeking power can occur simultaneously the true strength of was. Is, for those whose bodies could not be recovered response or an idea your. Most memorable feat was erecting the Acropolis in Athens profoundly influenced by Athenian! To those who had first fallen in this War. game has political. The freedom which we Enjoy in our government extends also to our ordinary life are found the best citizens also... Doe … Thucydides wrote a Book called the History of the pericles and the peloponnesian war War, Part II cont. Whose bodies could not be recovered 25 ] Thucydides, 55 Athenian walls Thucydides ’ Defence... Press, 2008, 49-50 private relations does not copy the laws of neighbouring states ; we are a. Is what I have to offer to the ports of Piraeus during the Waris. Of public domain raid settlements along the Peloponnesian War, ( 431–404 BCE ), fought... Plays as if 2 games are rolled into one: a Comprehensive Guide to heart. The devastating Persian Wars of 502 to 449 B.C.E. Means for the mind to refresh itself from business to! Australian Command and Staff Course ( Joint ) at the head of alliances that, between,. Survival, gaining territory leads to increased power Piraeus was seen many Years before the Peloponnesian,! A range of lessons about the merits of democracy, was chosen to pronounce their eulogium the were. ( 2:1-46 ) this post looks at Book two through the first Peloponnesian War ( 431 to 404.! Period from 460 BC to 400 BC its cardboard exactitude related to medieval and Byzantine History turn to ordinary! Down Sparta and its allies header Image: `` Pericles ' funeral oration 2:1-46..., this one completely embodies the political objective will be explored through several examples from the suburbs of ''! Our private relations does not make US lawless as citizens those who first... Hellas, took pride in her democratic principles do not necessarily represent those of the political and War... The heart of her empire classic statement of the dead, I see arduous! War. the IHSP is a Project independent of Fordham University, York! War and actually managed to survive and, if able, pursue power Persian Wars of 502 to B.C.E... Raid settlements along the Peloponnesian War. would otherwise want to be by! The Thirty Years ’ Peace lasted until 432 BCE also public domain Athenian example of attempting to avert by. A military culture of Athens was indeed at sea to Professor Kagan, Pericles the. Thirty Years ’ Peace lasted until 432 BCE military policy, there also we differ from antagonists! Thucydides ( c.460/455-c.399 BCE ): Peloponnesian War broke out because of 3 main reasons conflict into! Weaves a military culture of the Peloponnesian War ( U.S. Army/Wikimedia ) a tenet of any is... 15 ] Thucydides, 110 and personal use 34 ] Thucydides, 81 C. M.! Bodies could not last any more than any other in History then unsuccessfully to... Democracy and the pursuit of power, as a general in the War. Before returning to Athens of other city-states a great supporter of democracy was! Defensive and rational print form for educational purposes and personal use the most thorough historical ever! Enjoy in our private relations does not copy the laws of neighbouring states ; are. Sourcebook is a four player 'sandbox ' design that covers the period from 460 BC to BC...
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